By Richard J. Wakefield
Essential purposes of Musculoskeletal Ultrasound in Rheumatology, by way of Richard Wakefield & Maria Antonietta D’Agostino, assists you in such a lot successfully utilizing musculoskeletal ultrasound to diagnose and video display the development of rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, and different rheumatic and tender tissue problems. subsidized by way of the ecu League opposed to Rheumatism (EULAR), it's the first reference that makes an attempt to set rigorous instructions for the way and whilst to take advantage of musculoskeletal ultrasound within the evaluate of those instances. At expertconsult.com you could reference the full contents on-line, in addition to a picture gallery, supplemental video stills and clips, and scientific instances with better half evaluation questions.
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Extra resources for Essential Applications of Musculoskeletal Ultrasound in Rheumatology: Expert Consult Premium Edition: Enhanced Online Features and Print, 1e
Balint Pitfalls of Gray-Scale Artifacts KEY POINTS • Artifacts occur frequently in gray-scale ultrasound due to the physical and technical properties of ultrasound. Some artifacts may be avoided by modifying equip • ment settings and by the appropriate performance of the ultrasound examination. • Some artifacts aid in distinguishing tissues and lesions; most, however, hinder the acquisition of images. • Certain artifacts occur predominantly or exclusively in musculoskeletal ultrasound; awareness of them and regular maintenance of the equipment are of paramount importance.
Manufacturing companies have devised various unique acquisition and processing algorithms aimed at reducing or eliminating speckle and improving contrast resolution. Reverberation Reverberation is caused by sound bouncing back and forth between tissue boundaries and then returning to the receiver. It is characterized by the persistence of sound in a 33 34 I. Fundamentals of Ultrasound in Rheumatology A Figure 3-9 Reverberation artifact is caused by a surgical screw in the humeral head (arrow). sonographic appearance of the polyethylene liners used in joint replacement is displayed as a sharply echogenic linear interface with posterior acoustic shadowing, similar to the sonographic appearance of bone.
5,13-14 Harmonic imaging can reduce reverberation artifacts and improve contrast resolution. , fascia), which can be achieved by adjusting the angle or by tilting the transducer. 15 The In musculoskeletal ultrasound, mirroring is a major problem in Doppler imaging and is less often encountered in the gray scale. Sound can bounce off a strong, smooth, and large reflector, such as the diaphragm. The surface acts as a mirror and reflects the pulse to another tissue interface. The ultrasound system considers the second interface to be beyond the first surface, and this is where it appears on the image.