Atmospheric Turbulence: Models and Methods for Engineering by Hans A. Panofsky

By Hans A. Panofsky

Provides, in one quantity, an up to date precis of the present wisdom of the statistical features of atmospheric turbulence and an advent to the equipment required to use those facts to sensible engineering difficulties. Covers uncomplicated physics and information, statistical houses emphasizing their habit with regards to the floor, and purposes for engineers.

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At lower voltages, the streamer moves slower than the drift electrons, so that the formulas become invalid. The analysis of equations presented in [lo] shows that the streamer velocity drops with further decrease in U, at V , < Vem. The electron density at the Copyright © 2000 IOP Publishing Ltd. A long streamer 39 wave front decreases, all electrons are drawn out of the tip, and space charge fills it up. However, the final plasma density behind the ionization wave does not decrease. The tip radius becomes very small, and the streamer stops at low U,.

The electron density in the wave plasma and the respective plasma conductivity must provide the charge transport with the same velocity as that of the wave. This permits estimation of the plasma density in the streamer just behind its tip. During this period of time, the electron density rises to its final value nc M no exp (vi,&) , and the electron drift towards the channel with velocity V , = peE, (where pe is electron mobility taken, for simplicity, to be constant) exposes the charge which creates the field E, in the region of the new streamer tip.

Investigation of multielectrode systems is also important from another point of view: we must find ways of affecting lightning actively. It would be reasonable to leave the discussion of this issue for specialized chapters of this book, but they will, however, attract the attention of professionals only, or of those intending to become professionals. It is not professionals but amateurs who, most often, try to invent lightning protectors. They have at their disposal a complete set of up-to-date means: lasers, plasma jets, corona-forming electrodes for cloud charge exchange, radioactive Copyright © 2000 IOP Publishing Ltd.

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